Taq Polymerase is derived from the well-known bacterium called Thermus aquaticus. Such bacterium thrives well in most natural hot springs. Fred Faloona and Kary Mullis were the ones who developed the original PCR during the middle of the 80s. They utilized a polymerase that was obtained from E coli. Later on, however, bio-molecular scientists began utilizing Taq within PCR. This is because it was proven to be thriving in areas of extreme temperatures.
When it comes to its general functions, PCR actually involves the processes of denaturing, replicating and annealing methods; such processes were repeated around twenty to thirty times. Denaturating process separates double strand DNA, turning them into simple, single strands. In the replicating step, the Taq polymerase is able to build single strands of DNA while being marked by unique primers into double strand DNA segments. Lastly, during the annealing process, primers were used in binding DNA segments that were to be imitated. Taq polymerase works diligently during the replication process. Such polymerase creates single strands of DNA that are marked by primers and merge into double strand DNA segment.
What are the benefits of Taq Polymerase? The extreme levels of temperature necessary in denaturing DNA actually eradicated the polymerase from E coli, which were used initially in PCR. This required brand new form of polymerase, which is added to the PCR after every cycle. Fortunately, it was discovered that Taq polymerase has the ability to withstand such high temperatures. Scientists gave up on E. Coli, and instead, utilized Taq polymerase in the PCR sessions. They now are able to run as many PCR cycles as then can automatically.
In the area of committed errors, Taq polymerase actually commits errors in quite a high number; these are usual errors created when they copy DNA. Other known polymerases considered to be stable during high temperatures possess lower rates of error compared to Taq. However, the latter is still considered to be the one of the most utilized polymerase, if only because of its versatility, as well as reliability. This is according to a number of scientific research and studies.
Taq Polymerase is now considered to be one of the most indispensable reagents. It is a known engine that provides fuel to PCR. Acknowledged as one of the best discoveries in the field of molecular biology, this form of polymerase has been instrumental in making better the processes involving researches done involving life science. Such powerful technique meant for amplification of DNA is dependent on the efficient processivity of polymerase DNA enzyme derived from Thermus aquaticus, a bacterium.
Because of the relative stability of the Taq Polymerase enzymes, this bacterium actually thrives well in extremely hot environments. When it comes to the thermostability property of Taq polymerase, this is considered as a critical feature facilitating PCR development. This ensured the well-respected status of Taq Polymerase, with its significant role within PCR. This has placed the polymerase in a venerated position in the field of bio-molecular science because of its acknowledged importance.