Taq polymerase, a most commonly utilized enzyme found in polymerase chain reaction is isolated completely from Thermus aquaticus. Such thermophillic microorganisms can be found in natural, hot springs with temperatures ranging from 70 up to 75 degrees Centigrade. Taq polymerase, which is now utilized these days, is isolated completely from unique strain YT-1, which is a T. aquaticus culture gathered from a hot spring known as Mushroom Spring. It is considered one of the biggest hot springs found in the Geyser Basin.
When it comes to the properties of Taq polymerase, it actually possesses 835 amino acids. It has a weight of about 94,000 daltons. Its specific activity is 290,000 units, with every unit adding almost 10 moles of dNTPs to a product. Taq can be considered as the very first polymerase that retained its activity upon exposing itself to high temperatures. Specifically, this type of polymerase has found itself to have retained its activity after getting exposed to extreme temperatures. Taq polymerase possesses a half-life activity of almost an hour at 95 degrees Centigrade and 10 minutes at almost 80 degrees Centigrade.
The optimum polymerization activity of this polymerase can be found at temperature of about 80 degrees Centigrade, with pH of about 9.4. One of the significant factors that contributed to the overwhelming popularity of enzyme Taq polymerase along the chain reaction is the ability of the polymerase to continue functioning while being able to withstand very high temperature. Such peculiar property of Taq made this totally ideal for the polymerase reaction; it is has been known that the PCR requires extreme temperatures in order to denature DNA’s possessing double strands.
PCR is actually composed of more than 40 cycles. On the other hand, the temperature involved in every cycle is in the vicinity of 50 to 100 degrees Centigrade. E. coli, which is a DNA polymerase, and is utilized for PCR even before the Taq isolation, was eradicated at extreme temperatures. It needed to be replaced after every denaturation process. Such process increased any found error rate as well as chances for any cross contamination located within the PCR. Usage of Taq within the PCR has actually simplified all techniques. It likewise improved on its yield, sensitivity and specificity. If only because of Taq’s widespread usage, as well as significance in the biomolecular sciencey, the prestigious Science magazine awarded the Taq polymerase with the distinction of being the Year’s Molecule in 1989.
When it comes to proofreading ability, that exonuclease is not found in Taq polymerase. This only means that such polymerase possesses low form of replication fidelity. Likewise, it cannot make any corrections on errors that happened during any amplification process. These existing errors place a limit on the usage of the polymerase, particularly where high level of accuracy is necessary. Actually, the Taq Polymerase role in the PCR is important, since it is utilized in the creation and building of new segments. Definitely, when it comes to PCR, most scientists have immense use of Taq polymerase.